Cryocoolers 17 Table of Contents

Cryocoolers for 4-30 K Space & Military Applications

1An Overview of Ball Aerospace Cryocoolers

J.S. Marquardt, E.D. Marquardt, Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO; R. Boyle, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD

9Raytheon Low Temperature RSP2 Cryocooler

B.R. Schaefer, L. Ellis, M.J. Bellis, T. Conrad, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

177 K - 15 K Pulse Tube Cooler for Space

J. Duval, I. Charles, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France; J. Butterworth, Air Liquide, Grenoble, France; J. Mullié, Thales Cryogenics, Eindhoven, NL; M. Linder, ESA, Noordwijck, NL

25Design of a 4 K Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube Cooler for Tactical Applications

C. Kirkconnell, T. Mulcahey, Iris Tech, Irvine, CA; S. Ghiaasiaan, Georgia Tech., Atlanta, GA; T. Conrad, B. Schaefer, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

Miniature 50-200 K Single-Stage Cryocoolers

33Low Vibration Microminiature Split Stirling Cryogenic Cooler for Infrared Aerospace Applications

A. Veprik, S. Riabzev, Ricor, En Harod Ihud, Israel

43Low Cost Split Stirling Cryogenic Cooler for Aerospace Applications

A. Veprik, S. Riabzev, Ricor, En Harod Ihud, Israel; C. Kirkconnell, J. Freeman, Iris Tech., Irvine, CA

53150 K Pulse Tube Cooler for Micro-Satellites

J. Tanchon, T. Trollier, Y. Icart, A. Ravex, C. Chassaing, Absolut Systems, Meylan, France; J. Butterworth, Air Liquide, Sassenage, France; C. Daniel, R. Briet, CNES, Toulouse, France

61Linear Cryogenic Coolers for Hot Infrared Detectors

A. Veprik, S. Riabzev, Ricor, En Harod Ihud, Israel, N. Avishay, Elbit Systems, Rehovot, Israel; D. Oster, A. Tuitto; Israel Ministry of Defense, Tel-Aviv, Israel

71Integrated Testing of the Iris LCCE and NGAS Micro Pulse Tube Cooler

J. Freeman, T. Luong, C. Kirkconnell, Iris Tech., Irvine, CA; E. Tward, J. Raab, T. Nguyen, NGAS, Redondo Beach, CA

Medium-Capacity 50-80 K Single Stage Cryocoolers

79HEC Pulse Tube Cooler Performance Enhancement

T. Nguyen, G. Toma, J. Raab, NGAS, Redondo Beach, CA

85AIM Space Cryocooling System Qualification

S. Zehner, M. Mai, A. Withopf, I. Rühlich, AIM Infrarot-Module, Heilbronn, Germany

93Small Scale 80 K Pulse Tube Cooler for RAPID e-APD Infrared Camera

J. Tanchon, T. Trollier, Y. Icart, A. Ravex, Absolut Systems, Meylan, France, P. Feautrier, E. Stadler, IPAG, Saint Martin d'Hères, France

101Development of CryoTel(R) DT Cryocooler

S. Kim, Sunpower Inc., Athens, OH; R. Unger, R. Wiseman, Consultants

107A Miniature Coaxial Pulse Tube Cooler Operating above 100 Hz

X. Wang, L. Yu, G. Yu, W. Dai, J. Hu, E. Luo, Tech. Inst. of Physics and Chem., CAS, Beijing; J. Zhu, H. Li

Lihan Tech., Shenzhen, China

115Experimental Investigation of a 40 K Single Stage High Frequency Pulse Tube Cryocooler

M. G. Zhao, J. H. Cai, J. T. Liang, Tech. Inst. of Phys. and Chem., CAS, Beijing

High-Capacity 50-80 K Single-Stage Cryocoolers

121Preliminary Results on a Large Acoustic-Stirling (Pulse Tube) Cooler Designed for 800W at 70k

P. Spoor, Chart Industries, Biomedical Div., Troy

129Development of Orientation-Free High Power Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler

Y. Hiratsuka, K. Nakano, Tech. Res. Center, Sumitomo Heavy Indus., Tokyo

135Coaxial Pulse Tube Development

N. Emery, A. Caughley, N. Glasson, J. Meier, Ind. Res. Ltd, Christchurch, NZ, J. Tanchon, T. Trollier, A. Ravex, Absolut System, Grenoble, France

Pulse Tube Analysis & Experimental Measurements

143CFD Modeling of Tilt Induced Cooling Losses in Inertance Tube Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

T. Mulcahey, S. Ghiaasiaan, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA; T. Conrad, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

151CFD Simulation on the Optimum Pulse Tube Volume for a 120Hz Pulse Tube Cryocooler

Y. Yuan, X. Zhi, W. He, Z.H. Gan, L. Qiu, Zhejiang Univ., angzhou, China

161Separation of Pulse Tube Losses Based on Measurement of Energy Flow and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis

T. Ki, S. Jeong, Korea Adv. Inst. of Sci. and Tech., South Korea

169Study of Phase Shifting Mechanism of Inertance Tube at Low Temperatures

B. Wang, L.Y. Wang, J.K. Zhu, J. Chen, Z. P. Li, Z. H. H. Gan, L. M. M. Qiu, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China

179Staging Two Cryocoolers through a Quarter-Wave Tube

G.W. Swift, D.L. Gardner, S. Backhaus, LANL, Los Alamos, NM

187Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Validation of a Pulse Tube with a Cold Reservoir

K. Zhang, Z.H. Gan, L. Qiu, X. Shen, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China

197Coaxial Pulse Tube Refrigerator for 4 K

R. Habibi, M. Thürk, P. Seidel, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Jena, Germany

203Cooling Characteristics of GM-type Pulse Tube Refrigerator with Neon as Working Gas

J. Ko, Y.J. Hong, H. Kim, H. Yeom, S.J. Park, D.Y. Koh, Korea Inst. of Mach. and Mat'ls., South Korea

2093He-4He Pulse Tuber Cryocooler Performance Optimization

M. Lewis, P. Bradley, R. Radebaugh, NIST, Boulder, CO; R. Taylor, Virginia Military Inst., Lexington, VA

219Development of a 4k Regenerator and Pulse Tube Test Facility

R. Taylor, Virginia Military Inst., Lexington, VA; M. Lewis, P. Bradley, R. Radebaugh, NIST, Boulder, CO

229Real Time Phase Shifting with an Adjustable Inertance Tube

W. Zhou, J. Pfotenhauer, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

239One-Dimensional Cryogenic Temperature Measurement using Rayleigh Scattering Thermometry

M. Seo, S. Jeong, H. Shin, KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea; J. Park, LG Electronics, Seoul, South Korea

Stirling & GM Expander Investigations

247Experimental Investigation of High-Efficiency 4 K GM Crycoolers

T. Morie, M. Y. Xu, Tech. Research Center, Sumitomo Heavy Indus., Tokyo

253Numerical Simulation of 4 K GM Cryocooler

M. Y. Xu, T. Morie, Tech. Research Center, Sumitomo Heavy Indus., Tokyo

261Appendix Gap Losses with Pressure-Driven Mass Flows

M. Segado, J. Brisson, MIT, Cambridge, MA

271Losses and related Design Tradeoffs in Floating Piston Expanders

M. Segado, J. Brisson, MIT, Cambridge, MA; C. Hannon, Adv. Mech.Tech., Watertown, MA

283CFD Modeling of a Diaphragm Stirling Cryocooler

A. Caughley, Ind. Res. Ltd, Christchurch, NZ; M. Sellier, A. Tucker, Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ; M. Gschwendtner, TS-dot Eng., Christchurch, NZ

293Modeling Transient Behavior of an Integral Rotary Cryocooler

G. Grossman, Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa, Israel; R. Arbesman, Y. Daniel, Y. Man, V. Segal, Ricor, Ein Harod Ihud, Israel

Regenerator & Recuperator Investigations

303Testing of New Non-Rare-Earth Composite Regenerator Plates

E. Alar, G. Nellis, S. Klein, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison; W. Chen, Creare Inc., Hanover, NH

309Experimental Investigation of Regenerative Material on Performance of a 10 K Cryocooler

J. Quan, Y. Liu, J. Liang, J. Wang, Laboratory of Space Energy Conv. Tech., Tech. Inst. of Physics & Chem., CAS

315Drag Coefficient and Nusselt Number for Laminar Pulsating Flow in Porous Media

T. Mulcahey, M. Pathak, S. Ghiaasiaan, Georgia Tech., Atlanta

323Energy-based Performance Estimation of Multistage Crycoolers with Vaiaible Mid-Stage Cooling Loads

A. Razani, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; C. Dodson, T. Fraser, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

PT & Stirling Compressor Development and Modeling

331Development of a Linear Compressor for Stirling-Type Cryocoolers Activated by Piezoelectric Elements in Resonance

S. Sobol, T. Sofer, G. Grossman, Technion - Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa, Israel

341A Comparison of LVDT and RC Methods to Characterize the Performance of a Linear Compressor

L.Y. Wang, D.L. Liu, J.K. Zhu, Z.H. Gan, L.M. Qiu, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China; Y.N. Wu, Shanghai Inst. of Tech. Phys., CAS, Shanghai

347High Speed Compressors

P.B. Bailey, M.W. Dadd, C.R.Stone, Oxford Univ., Oxford

357Verification of the Black-EMF Method for Piston Velocity Measurements

R. Radebaugh, M. Lewis, P. Bradley, NIST, Boulder, CO

367A Modular Architecture for Helium Compressors Larger than 2.5kW

J. Diederichs, M. Simmonds, T. Sayles, S. Spagna, Quantum Design, San Diego, CA

J-T and Sorption Cryocooler Developments

371Two Stage Pure Gas and Single Stage Mixture Gas Microcooler Developments

H.S. Cao, J.H. Derking, H.J. Holland, D.R. Zalewski, C.H. Vermeer, S. Vanapalli, H.J.M. ter Brake, Kryoz Tech., Enschede, NL, P.P.P.M. Lerou, Kryoz Tech., Enschede, NL, T. Tirolien, ESA, Noordwijk, NL; M.R. Crook, RAL, Didcot, UK

377Sorption-Based Vibration-Free Cooler for the METIS Instrument on E-ELT

H.J.M. ter Brake, Y. Wu, D.R. Zalewski, C.H. Vermeer, Univ. of Twente, Enschede, NL, Doornink; E. Boom, Dutch Space, Leiden, NL

387Binary Mixed Refrigerants for Joule-Thomson Cryocooling to 80-100 K

N. Tzabar, G. Grossman, Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa, Israel

397Performance Anaylsis of Joule-Thomson Cryocooler Supplied with Gas Mixture

M. Chorowski, A. Piotrowska, Wroclaw Univ. of Tech., Poland

407Influence of Ambient Temperature on Performance of a Joule-Thomson Refrigerator

Y.J. Hong, S.J. Park, J. Ko, H.B. Kim, Korea Inst. of Mach. & Mat'ls., South Korea

415A Numerical Cool-Down Analyisi for Joule-Thomson Cryocoolers

N. Tzabar, A. Kaplansky, Cryogenics Group, Rafael Ltd., Haifa

425A Vibration-Free 35 K Cryocooler Driven by Electrochemical Compressors

W. Chen, B. Smith, M. Zagarola, Creare Inc., Hanover, NH, S. Narayanan, Univ. of Southern Calif., Los Angeles, CA

Brayton Cryocooler Developments

435Modified Reverse-Brayton Cycles for Efficient Liquefaction of Natural Gas

H.M. Chang, J.H. Park, Hong Ik University, South Korea; K.S. Cha, S. Lee, K.H. Choe, Korea Gas Corp., South Korea

443Demonstration of High-Capacity Cryocooler for Zero Boil-Off Cryogen Storage in Space

M. Zagarola, J. Breedlove, K. Cragin, Creare Inc., Hanover, NH

453Demonstration of an Ultra-Miniature Turboalternator for Space-Borne Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler

M. Zagarola, J. McCormick, K. Cragin, Creare Inc., Hanover, NH

461Recuperative Cooling Capability of Miniature Thermoacoustic Expanders (MTAEs) around 77 K

Z. Hu, Cryowave Advanced Tech., Woonsocket, RI

Sub-Kelvin, Thermoelectric, & Novel Refrigerators

471Cryogen-Free Dilution Refrigerator with 1k-Stage

K. Uhlig, Walther-Meissner-Institute, Germany

479Development Status of 50 mK Hybrid Coolers for Space Applications at CEA-SBT

L. Duband, JM. Duval, N. Luchier, CEA /SBT, Grenoble, France

487A 1K 4He Close Cycle Loop Precooler Using a PT415 Pulse Tuber for the BLISS Test Bed Cryostat

T. Prouvé, J. Bock, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Caltech, Pasadena; W. Holmes, C.M. Bradford, JPL, Pasadena, CA

495Performance of Thermoelectric Coolers

A. Razani, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; T. Fraser, C. Dodson, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

Cryocooler Integration Technologies

503Remote Helium Cooling Loops for Laboratory Applications

T. Trollier, J. Tanchon, Y. Icart, A. Ravex, Absolut Systems, Meylan, France

511A Powerful 10 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler with Cold Helium Circulation

C. Wang, Cryomech, Syracuse, NY

517Electrical Analogue Model of an Integrated Circulator

J.R. Maddocks, P. Maddocks, A. Kashani, Atlas Sci., San Jose, CA

525Integrated Detector Cooler Assembly for Space Applications

J. Raab, E. Tward, G. Toma, T. Nguyen, NGAS, Redondo Beach, CA

531Very Compact Integration of an Ultra-low Vibration Platform for Space Cryocoolers Using Miniature High Frequency Actuators

G. Aigouy, J. Butterworth, J-C. Rey, Air Liquide, Sassenage, France; C. Benoit, Cedrat Tech., Meylan, France, P. Lamy, SMAC, Toulon, France

539Testing Results for Low Exported Force and Torque Cryocooler Mounts

E. Marquardt, D. Glaister, J. Marquardt, Ball Aerospace, Boulder CO; J. Raab, D. Durand, NGAS, Redondo Beach, CA

Cryocooler Applications

545Matching of Superconducting Motors and Cryocoolers

A.T.A.M. de Waele, T. Reis, B. Oswald, Oswald Elektromotoren GmbH, Miltenberg, Germany

555Performance of a 4 Kelvin Pulse-Tube Cooled Cryostat with dc SQUID Amplifiers for Bolometric Detector Testing

D. Barron, M. Atlas, B. Keating, R. Quillin, N. Stebor, B. Wilson, Univ. of Calif. San Diego, La Jolla, CA

565Compact Integration of Cryogenic LNA on a Miniature Cryocooler

J. Delmas, R. Webber, I. Vernik, G. Prokopenko, D. Gupta, Hypres, Elmsford, NY

575TIRS Cryocooler Integration and Test at the Instrument Level

R. Boyle, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD, E. Marquardt, J. Marquardt, Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO

581Cryo-Cooled Low Pressure Helium Purifier

J. Diederichs, C. Chialvo, M. Simmonds, Quantum Design, San Diego, CA

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