Cryocoolers 16 Table of Contents

Cryocoolers for 1-30 K Aerospace Applications

1Developments of 1-4 K Class Space Mechanical Coolers for New Generation Satellite Missions in JAXA.

K. Shinozaki, H. Sugita, Y. Sato, K. Mitsuda, T. Nakagawa, JAXA, Japan; R. Fujimoto, Kanazawa Univ., Japan; K. Narasaki, K. Kanao, S. Tsunematsu, K. Otsuka, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Japan

9MIRI Cooler System Design Update

M. Petach, D. Durand, M. Michaelian, J. Raab, E. Tward, NGAS, Redondo Beach, CA

1310 K Airborne Cryocooler and High Efficiency Heat Exchangers

W. Gully, P. Hendershott, E. Marquardt, D. Glaister, C. Wilson, Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO

19A Three-Stage Stirling Pulse Tube Cryocooler Approaching 4 K

Q. Cao, L. Qiu, Z. Gan, Y. Yu, X. Zhi, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China

27Progress in the Development and Performance of a High Frequency 4 K Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler

P. Bradley, R. Radebaugh, I. Garaway, E. Gerecht, NIST, Boulder, CO

35Vibration-Free, Hybrid Cryocooler for 4 K Space Applications

M. Zagarola, W. Chen, Creare Inc., Hanover, NH

45Development of 15 K Pulse Tube Cold Fingers for Space Applications at CEA/SBT

J. Duval, I. Charles, A. Coynel, A. Gauthier, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France

51Experimental Investigation on a Single-Stage Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler Working below 30 K

J. Ren, W. Dai, E. Luo, X. Wang, J. Hu, Tech. Inst. of Physics and Chem.-CAS, Beijing, China

GM-Type Coolers for 4-30 K Ground Applications

57Development of High Efficiency 4 K Two-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler

M. Xu, H. Takayama, K. Nakano, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Japan

65Dynamic Operation of a 4 K Pulse Tube Cryocooler with Inverter Compressors

C. Wang, Cryomech, Syracuse, NY

71Effect of the Charged Pressure on GM Cryocooler Performance.

H. Nezuka, H. Nakagome, M. Ota, Chiba Univ., Japan; T. Numazawa, Nat. Inst. for Mat. Science, Japan; S. Masuyama, Oshima Nat. Coll. of Maritime Tech., Japan; N. Nakashima and Y. Ikeya, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Japan

77Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of 30 K Single Stage GM-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler

S. Desai, C.K. Pithawala College of Engin., Surat, India; K. Desai, H. Naik, S.V. Nat’l Inst. of Tech., Surat, India; M. Atrey, Indian Inst. of Tech.-Bombay, Mumbai, India

Small 50-80 K Single-Stage Cryocoolers

87A Study of a Miniature In-Line Pulse Tube Cryocooler

S. Sobol, Y. Katz, G. Grossman, Technion/Israel Inst. of Tech., Israel

97Space Micro Pulse Tube Cooler

T. Nguyen, M. Petach, M. Michaelian, J. Raab, E. Tward, NGAS, Redondo Beach, CA

103SITP’s Miniature Coaxial Pulse Tube Cryocooler

H. Dang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, Shanghai Inst. of Tech. Physics-CAS, Shanghai, China

111The Development of a New Generation of Miniature Long-Life Linear Coolers

W. van de Groep, J. Mullié, D. Willems, F. van Wordragen, T. Benschop, Thales Cryogenics, Netherlands

121Compact Linear Split Stirling Cryogenic Cooler for High Temperature Infrared Imagers

A. Veprik, S. Zehtzer, N. Pundak, Ricor, En Harod, Israel; S. Riabzev, EADS Astrium, Stevenage, UK

133AIM Space Cryocooler Programs

M. Mai, I. Rühlich, A. Schreiter, S. Zehner, AIM Infrarot-Module GmbH, Heilbronn, Germany

Medium-Capacity 50-80 K Single-Stage Cryocoolers

143HEC Pulse Tube Coaxial Cold Head Coolers

T. Nguyen, G. Toma, C. Jaco, M. Michaelian, J. Raab, NGAS, Redondo Beach, CA

149Performance Investigation on SITP’s 60 K High Frequency Single-Stage Coaxial Pulse Tube Cryocoolers.

H. Dang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, S. Li, K. Yang, W. Shen, Shanghai Inst. of Tech. Physics-CAS, Shanghai, China

157Performance of a Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cooler for High Efficiency Operation at 100 Hz.

X. Wang, W. Dai, J. Hu, E. Luo, Y. Zhou, Tech. Inst. of Physics and Chem.-CAS, Beijing, China

High-Capacity 50-80 K Single-Stage Cryocoolers

16330 W at 50 K Single-Stage Coaxial Pulse Tube Cooler with Tapered Buffer Tube

P. Spoor, CFIC Inc., Troy, NY

167Development of SITP’s Large Capacity High Frequency Coaxial Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

H. Dang, L. Wang, Y. Wu, S. Li, K. Yang, W. Shen, H. Fu, Shanghai Inst.of Tech. Physics-CAS, Shanghai, China

175Development of a High Frequency Pulse Tube

N. Emery, A. Caughley, N. Glasson, Industrial Research Ltd, New Zealand; A. Tucker, Univ. of Canterbury, New Zealand, M. Gschwendtner, TS-dot Engin., New Zealand

Pulse Tube Analysis and Experimental Measurements

183Why High-Frequency Pulse Tubes Can Be Tipped

G. Swift, S. Backhaus, LASL, Los Alamos, NM

193Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Axial Temperature Mismatch and its Optimization for Coaxial Inertance Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

L. Wang, H. Dang, Y. Wu, S. Li, K. Yang, C. Xiong, Shanghai Inst. of Tech. Physics-CAS, Shanghai, China

201Pressure Drop Characteristics of Slit-Type Heat Exchanger

T. Ki, S. Jeong, Korea Adv. Inst. of Sci. and Tech., Korea

211Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Flow Straighteners in U-type Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

A. Badgujar, M. Atrey; IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India

219Flow and Heat Transfer Processes in an Inertance Type Pulse Tube Refrigerator

D. Antao, B. Farouk, Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA

227Effect of Component Geometry on Flow Non-uniformities in a Large Pulse Tube Cryocooler

M. Lewis, R. Radebaugh, P. Bradley, NIST, Boulder, CO; R. Taylor, Virginia Military Inst., Lexington, VA

237Secondary Pulse Tubes and Regenerators for Coupling to Room-Temperature Phase Shifters in Multistage Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

R. Radebaugh, A. O’Gallagher, J. Gary, NIST, Boulder, CO

249Inertance Tube and Reservoir Modeling: Meshing, Convergence and Friction Factors for Oscillating Flow

C. Dodson, T. Roberts, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM; A. Razani, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM

259Investigation on the Phase Characteristics of High Frequency Inertance Pulse Tube Cryocoolers above 50 K.

S. Li, H. Dang, Y. Wu, L. Wang, K. Yang, Shanghai Inst. of Tech. Physics-CAS, Shanghai, China

267Simulation of Boundary Layer Effects in the Pulse Tube of a Miniature Cryocooler

T. Conrad, S. Ghiaasiaan, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA; C. Kirkconnell, Iris Tech., Irvine, CA

275Continuously Variable Inertance Tubes for Pulse Tube Refrigerators

J. Pfotenhauer, T. Steiner, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; L.M. Qiu, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China

281Impact of Small Regenerator Structural Flaws on the Performance of Miniature Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

T. Conrad, S. Ghiaasiaan, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA; C. Kirkconnell, Iris Tech., Irvine, CA; T. Crittenden, Virtual AeroSurface Tech., Atlanta, GA

291Thermodynamic Comparison of Two-Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerators for Two Different Configurations

A. Razani, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; T. Fraser, C. Dodson, T. Roberts, AFRL/RVSS, Kirtland AFB, NM

299Phasor Analysis of Pulse Tube Refrigerator

L. Mohanta, M. Atrey; IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India

309Experimental Investigations on 20 K Stirling-Type Two-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler with Inline Configuration.

M. Tendolkar, M. Atrey; IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India; K. Narayankhedkar,VJTI, Mumbai, India

317Some Insights Into Stirling Machine Behavior

A. Tucker, M. Gschwendtner, D. Haywood, Univ. of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

327Comparison of Thermoelectric and Stirling Type Cryocoolers Using Control Thermodynamic Model

A. Razani, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; C. Dodson, T. Roberts, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

Thermoacoustic Refrigerator Investigations

335Investigations on a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

R. Dhuley, M. Atrey, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India

343Design of Standing Wave Type Thermoacoustic Prime Mover for 300 Hz Operating Frequency

S. Mehta,L.D. College of Engin., Ahmedabad, India; K. Desai, H. Naik, S.V. Nat’l Inst. of Tech., Surat, India; M. Atrey, Indian Inst. of Tech-Bombay, Mumbai, India

Compressor Development and Modeling

353Clearance Loss Analysis in Linear Compressor with CFD Method.

W. Zhou, Z. Gan, X. Zhang, L. Qiu, Y. Wu, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China

361Development of a Moving Magnet Linear Motor Pressure Wave Generator for a Pulse Tube Refrigerator

S. Jacob, V. Ramanarayanan, R. Karunanithi, C.Damu, G. Jagadish, M.Achanur, R. Manjunatha, J. Kranthi Kumar, A. Gour, Indian Inst. of Science, India; R. Prabhu, A. Gaunekar, ASM Tech, Singapore

371Enhanced Helium Compressor Operation for Sensitive Measuring Instrumentation

T. Sayles, D. Martien, J. Diederichs, J. Sloan, D. Bird, S. Spagna, Quantum Design, San Diego, CA

375An Oil-Free Compressor for Gifford McMahon Cold Heads

A. Caughley and J Meier, Industrial Research Ltd., New Zealand

385CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation of a Diaphragm Pressure Wave Generator

T. Huang, V. Chamritski, HTS-110 Ltd, New Zealand; A. Caughley, R. Young, Industrial Research Ltd, New Zealand

391An Advanced Compressor for Turbo-Brayton Cryocoolers

R. Hill, J. Hilderbrand, M. Zagarola, Creare Inc., Hanover, NH

Regenerator Modeling and Performance Investigations

397Regenerator Friction Factor and Nusselt Number Information Derived from CFD Analysis

M. Cheadle, G. Nellis, S. Klein, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

405Measured and Calculated Performance of a High Frequency, 4 K Stage, He-3 Regenerator

I. Garaway, M. Lewis, P. Bradley, R. Radebaugh; NIST, Boulder, CO

411Effect of Frequency on Hydrodynamic Parameters of Mesh Fillers in Oscillatory Flow

E. Landrum, T. Conrad, M. Pathak, S. Ghiaasiaan, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA; C. Kirkconnell, Iris Technology, Irvine, CA; T. Crittenden, S. Yorish, Virtual AeroSurface Tech., Atlanta, GA

419Thermal Dispersion and Convection Heat Transfer during Laminar Transient Flow in Porous Media

M. Pathak, S. Ghiaasiaan, Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA

429Study of 35 K Regenerator Performance Operating at High Frequency

B. Wang, B. Fan, W. Zhou, Z. Gan, L. Qiu; Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China

437Are P-V and T-S Diagrams Meaningful for Regenerative Cryocoolers?

P. Kittel, Consultant, Palo Alto, CA

J-T and Sorption Cryocooler Developments

44514.5 K Hydrogen Sorption Cooler: Design and Breadboard Tests

M. ter Brake, J. Burger, H. Holland, R. Meijer, A. Mudaliar, D. Zalewski, Univ. of Twente, The Netherlands; M. Linder, ESA, The Netherlands

455Effect of Heat Exchanger Configuration on the Performance of Joule-Thomson Refrigerators

Y. Hong, S. Park, Korea Inst. of Mach. and Mat’l, S. Korea; Y. Choi, Korea Univ., S. Korea

463Progress in Joule-Thomson Microcooling at the University of Twente

H. Derking, D. Zalewski, M. Garcia, H. Holland, A. Mudaliar, H. Cao, M. ter Brake, Univ. of Twente, Netherlands; P. Lerou, Kryoz Tech., The Netherlands

473Development of a Miniature Fast Cool Down J-T Cryocooler

N. Tzabar, I. Lifshits, Rafael Ltd., Haifa, Israel

481Analysis of Multi-Stage Joule-Thomson Microcoolers

H. Cao, A. Mudaliar, H. Holland, J. Derking, D. Zalewski, M. ter Brake, Univ. of Twente, Netherlands; P. Lerou, Kryoz Tech., The Netherlands

489Open Cycle Joule-Thomson Cryocooling by Mixed Coolant

B-Z. Maytal, Rafael, Haifa, Israel

497Heat Rejection Capacity in Miniature Thermoacoustic Expanders at Cryogenic Temperature 77 K

Z. Hu, CryoWave Adv. Tech., Woonsocket, RI; T. Roberts, AFRL/RVSS, Kirtland AFB, NM

Sub-Kelvin, Magnetic, and Novel Refrigerators

509Concept of a Powerful Cryogen-Free Dilution Refrigerator with Separate 1 K Stage

K. Uhlig, Walther Meißner Institute, Germany

515A 2 K Active Magnetic Regenerative Refrigeration System for Remote Cooling.

W. Chen, J. McCormick, M. Zagarola, Creare Inc., Hanover, NH

523Numerical Modeling on Reciprocating Active Magnetic Refrigeration Regenerator at Room Temperature

J. Li, T. Numazawa, Nat. Inst. for Mat’ls Science, Japan; K.Matsumoto, Kanazawa Univ., Japan; H. Nakagome,Chiba Univ., Japan

531Experimental Study of Active Magnetic Regenerator (AMR) Composed of Spherical GdN

Y. Hirayama, H. Okada, T. Nakagawa, T. Yamamoto, T. Kusunose, Osaka Univ., Japan; T. Numazawa, Nat’l Inst. for Mat’l Science, Japan; K. Mastumoto, Kanazawa Univ., Japan; T. Irie, E. Nakamura, Santoku Corp., Kobe, Japan

537Progress in the Development of the IXO 50 mK Sorption-ADR stage

J. Duval, N. Luchier, L. Duband, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France; T. Tirolien , ESA, The Netherlands

547Flight Cryogenic System for the Micro-X Sounding Rocket

P. Wikus, J. Rutherford, S. Trowbridge, R. Das, E. Figueroa-Feliciano, S. W. Leman, K. Sato, MIT, Boston, MA; J. Adams, S. Bandler, M. Eckart, R. Kelley, C. Kilbourne, F. Porter, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD; W. Doriese, NIST, Boulder, CO; D. McCammon, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

Cryocooler Integration Technologies

557Thermal Switching Cryogenic Heat Pipe

D. Bugby, ATK, Beltsville, MD; J. Cepeda-Rizo, J.I. Rodriguez, JPL, Pasadena, CA

567Low Temperature Adsorption Versus Pore Size in Activated Carbons

D. Martins, I. Catarino, D. Lopes, I. Esteves, J. Mota, G. Bonfait, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, UNL, Portugal

575Thermal Storage Unit Using the Triple Point of Hydrogen

Charles, A. Coynel, CEA/DSM/INAC/SBT, France; C. Daniel, CNES, France

583Liquid Nitrogen Energy Storage Units

J. Afonso, I. Catarino, D. Martins, G. Bonfait, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia-UNL, Portugal; L. Duband, CEA/SBT, France; R. Patrício, Active Space Tech., Portugal

591Performance Test of Pulse Tube Cooler with Integrated Circulator

J. Maddocks, P. Maddocks, M. Fay, B. Helvensteijn, A. Kashani, Atlas Scientific, San Jose, CA

601Demonstration of a Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction System Employing an Actively Cooled Thermal Radiation Shield

J. Feller, NASA-ARC, Moffett Field, CA; D. Plachta, NASA-GRC, Cleveland, OH; G. Mills, C. McLean, Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO

611Pulse Tube Cooler with Remote Cooling

J. Raab, T. Nguyen, G. Toma, R. Colbert, E. Tward, NGAS, Redondo Beach, CA; J. Maddocks, Atlas Scientific, Madison, WI

617Self-Induced Vibration of NGAS Space Pulse Tube Coolers

R. Colbert, T. Nguyen, J. Raab, E. Tward; NGAS, Redondo Beach, CA

623Reduction of Self Induced Vibration in Rotary Stirling Cycle Coolers

U. Bin-Nun, FLIR Systems, Boston, MA

633Performance and Mass vs. Operating Temperature for Pulse Tube and Stirling Cryocoolers

D. Ladner, N-Science Corp., Golden, CO

645Application of New Figures of Merit for Multi-Stage Cryocoolers

J. Delmas, A. Kadin, R. Webber, E. Track, Hypres Inc., Elmsford, NY

655Cryocooler Prognostic Health Management System

E. Sandt, B. Penswick, A. Shah, Sest, Inc., Middleburg Heights, OH; C. Dodson, T. Roberts, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

Cryocooler Drive Electronics

667Modular Linear-Drive Cryocooler Electronics

C. Kirkconnell, J. Freeman, Iris Tech., Irvine, CA; R. Hon, M. Jackson, M. Kieffer, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

675Design and Analysis of Power Controller for Moving Magnet Linear Motor Compressor

S. Jacob, K. Sriram Prabhu, R. Karunanithi, V. Ramanarayanan, Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, India

681Drive Electronics for Moving Magnet Type Linear Motor Compressor

R. Karunanithi, S. Jacob, A. Gour; Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, India

Space Cryocooler Applications

689In-Flight Performance of the HERSCHEL Sorption Coolers – One Year of Operation

L. Duband, E. Ercolani, L. Guillemet, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France; M. Sauvage, J. Martignac, CEA/IRFU/SA, Saclay, France; B. Swinyard, D. Griffin, RAL, Chilton, UK; C. Jewell, ESA, Noordjwick, NL; B. Collaudin, THALES Alenia Space, Cannes, France

699SPICA/SAFARI Sub-Kelvin Cryogenic Chain

L. Duband, J. Duval, N. Luchier, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France; S. D’Escrivan, CNES, Toulouse, France

709Cryocoolers for Microsatellite Military Applications

E. Pettyjohn, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

Commercial Cryocooler Applications

715Development of Recondensing Cryostat for PAMELA

S. Pattalwar, T. Jones, J. Strachan, N. Bliss, STFC Daresbury Lab, UK; H. Witte, JAI Accelerator Science, Oxford, UK

721Analysis of a Supercritical Hydrogen Liquefaction Cycle

W. Staats, J. Smith, Jr., J. Brisson, MIT, Boston, MA

731Experimental Apparatus for Measuring the Performance of a Precooled Mixed Gas Joule Thomson Cryosurgical Probe

H. Skye, S. Klein, G. Nellis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

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