Cryocoolers 15 Table of Contents

Cryocoolers for 4 - 20 K Space Applications

1 10 K Pulse Tube Cooler Performance Data

C. Jaco, T. Nguyen, J. Raab, NGST, Redondo Beach, CA

7 Mid InfraRed Instrument (MIRI) Cooler Subsystem Design

D. Durand, D. Adachi, D. Harvey C. Jaco, M. Michaelian, T. Nguyen, M. Petach, J. Raab, NGST, Redondo Beach, CA

13 Development of Advanced Two-stage Stirling Cryocooler for Next Space Missions

Y. Sato, H. Sugita, K. Komatsu, R. Shimizu, H. Uchida, et al., JAXA, Japan; M. Murakami, Univ. of Tsukuba, Japan; I. Iwata, S. Tsuneta, Nat’l Astro. Obser. of Japan; S. Tsunematsu, K. Kanao, K. Ootsuka, M. Hirabayashi, Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Japan

23 Further Developments on a Vibration-Free Helium-Hydrogen Sorption Cooler

J. Burger, H. Holland, R. Meijer, H.J.M. ter Brake, Univ. of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; J. Doornink, Dutch Space, Leiden, The Netherlands; A. Sirbi, M. Linder, ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

20 - 150 K Two-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

31 Raytheon Stirling/Pulse Tube Cryocooler Maturation Programs

C. Kirkconnell, R. Hon, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA; T. Roberts, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

39 Multistage Pulse Tube Refrigeration Characterization of the Lockheed-Martin RAMOS Cryocooler

W. Scheirer, T. Roberts, E. Pettyjohn, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

49 ABI Cooler System Protoflight Performance

R. Colbert, G. Pruitt, T. Nguyen, J. Raab, NGST, Redondo Beach, CA; S. Clark, P. Ramsey, ITT Space Systems, Ft. Wayne, IN

55 Performance Characterization of the ABI Cryocooler

P. Ramsey, S. Clark, ITT Space Systems, Fort Wayne, IN; A. Chuchra, Thermac, Arnold, MD; R. Boyle, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD; D. Early, Chesapeake Aerospace, Grasonville, MD; and R. Colbert, NGST, Redondo Beach, CA

63 Development of a Two-Stage High-Temperature Pulse Tube Cooler for Space Applications

I. Charles, A. Coynel, J. Duval, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France; C. Daniel, R. Briet, CNES, Toulouse, France

71 Experimental Results of 20K Pulse Tube Cold Fingers for Space Applications

J. Duval, I. Charles, A. Gauthier, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France; T. Trollier, J. Tanchon, Air Liquide, Sassenage, France; M. Linder ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands; R. Briet, CNES, Toulouse, France

79 Investigation of a Thermally Coupled Two-Stage Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Cryocooler

L. Yang, CAS, Beijing, China and Univ. of Giessen, Germany

89 A New Load-Shifting Concept for Multistage Cryocoolers

S. Yuan, D. Curran, Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA

Small 50 - 80 K Single-Stage Cryocoolers

97 High Frequency Coaxial Pulse Tube Microcooler

M. Petach, M. Waterman, G. Pruitt, E. Tward, NGST, Redondo Beach, CA

105 Development of a Miniature 150Hz Pulse Tube Cryocooler

I. Garaway, Z. Gan, P. Bradley, R. Radebaugh, NIST, Boulder, CO; A. Veprik, Ricor, En Harod Ihud, Israel

115 Status of Air Liquide Space Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

T. Trollier, J. Tanchon, J. Buquet, A. Ravex, Air Liquide, Sassenage, France

125 Integrated Testing of a Complete Low Cost Space Cryocooler System

R. Hon, C. Kesler, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA; D. Sigurdson, Raytheon RVS, Goleta, CA

133 Development of the Miniature Flexure Bearing Cryocooler SF070

M. Mai, I. Ruehlich, C. Rosenhagen, Th. Wiedmann, AIM Infrarot Module, Heilbronn, Germany

139 Stirling Cryocooler for 3rd-Generation IR Platforms

M. Squires, L. Dicken, Carleton Life Support Systems, Davenport, Iowa

143 Reliability Growth of Stirling-Cycle Coolers at L-3 CE

R. Estrada, D. Kuo, Q. Phan, L-3 Cincinnati Electronics, Pasadena, CA

149 Theoretical and Experiment Study of a Pulse Tube Cryocooler Driven with a Linear Compressor

Q. Cao, Z. Gan, G. Liu, Z. Li, Y. Wu, L. Qiu, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, China; J. Pfotenhauer, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

High-Capacity 50 - 80 K Single-Stage Cryocoolers

157 Development of a 15W Coaxial Pulse Tube Cooler

W. van de Groep, J. Mullié, D. Willems, T. Benschop, Thales Cryogenics, Eindhoven, The Netherlands

167 Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Rapid Cooldown of a Superconducting Magnet

M. Lewis, P. Bradley, I. Garaway, R. Radebaugh, NIST, Boulder, CO; R. Taylor, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

Pulse Tube Analysis and Experimental Measurements

177 Extracting Cooling from the Pulse Tube and Regenerator in a 4K Pulse Tube Cryocooler

C. Wang, Cryomech, Syracuse, NY

185 Experimental Investigation of Single-Stage Inline Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Refrigerator

L. Mohanta, M. Atrey, Indian Inst. of Tech., Mumbai, India

191 Design of an Experimental Test Facility for Measurement of Pulse Tube Energy Flows

R. Taylor, G. Nellis, S. Klein. Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; M. Lewis, P. Bradley, R. Radebaugh, NIST, Boulder, CO

201 Research of Two Separated Pulse Tube Cold Heads Driven by a Single Compressor

X. Chang, L. Yang, J. Liang, J. Cai, Y. Zhou, G. Hong, CAS, Beijing, China

209 Performance Comparison of Stirling-Type Single-Stage Pulse Tube Refrigerators of Inline and ‘U’ Configurations

M. Tendolkar, M. Atrey, Indian Inst. of Tech., Mumbai, India; K. Narayankhedkar, Veermata Jijabai Tech. Institute, Mumbai, India

217 Effect of Geometric Configuration on the Dynamic Behavior of Linear Compressor and Cooling Performance in Stirling-Type Pulse Tube Refrigerator

J. Ko, S. Jeong, Korea Adv. Institute of Science and Tech., Daejeon, Korea; Y. Han, T. Sung, KEPRI, Daejeon, Korea

227 Experimental Research of 300Hz Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

H. Cai, J. Yang, L. Yang, J. Liang, Y. Zhou, CAS, Beijing, China

233 Chararcterizing Flow and Temperature Instabilities within Pulse Tube Cryocoolers using Infrared Imaging

I. Garaway, R. Taylor, M. Lewis, P. Bradley, R. Radebaugh, NIST, Boulder, CO

241 CFD Modeling of Meso-Scale and Micro-Scale Pulse Tube Refrigerators

T. Conrad, E. Landrum, S. Ghiaasiaan, Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA; C. Kirkconnell, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA; T. Crittenden, S. Yorish, Virtual AeroSurface Tech., Atlanta, GA

251 CFD Modeling of Reciprocating Flow around a Bend in Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

I. Nachman, N. Pundak, Ricor, En Harod Ihud, Israel; G. Grossman, Israel Inst. of Tech., Haifa, Israel

261 Numerical Simulation of Oscillating Fluid Flow in Inertance Tubes

C. Dodson, A. Razani, T. Roberts, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

271 Comparative Numerical Study of Pulse Tube Refrigerators

T. Ashwin, G. Narasimham, S. Jacob, Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore, India

281 The Role of Thermoconductivity in Pulse Tube Cryocoolers

P. Kittel, Consultant, Palo Alto, CA

Compressor Development and Modeling

289 Investigation of Cryogenic Cooling Systems Activated by Piezoelectric Elements

S. Sobol, G. Grossman, Israel Institute of Tech., Haifa, Israel

299 Proton Conductive Membrane Compressor-Driven Pulse Tube Cryocooler

J. Muller, L. Johnson, Johnson R&D, Atlanta, GA; C. Kirkconnell, R. Hon, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

309 Development of a Diaphragm Pressure Wave Generator for Cryocoolers

A. Caughley, Industrial Research, Ltd., Christchurch , New Zealand; C. Wang, Cryomech, Syracuse, NY

Regenerator Modeling and Performance Investigations

317 Effect of Regenerator Material Configuration on 4K-GM Cryocooler Performance

T. Kuriyama, Toshiba, Tokyo, Japan; K. Sagawa, H. Tachibana, T. Okamura, Tokyo Inst. of Tech., Yokohama, Japan

325 Calculated Performance of Low-Porosity Regenerators at 4 K with He-4 and He-3

R. Radebaugh, A. O’Gallagher, J. Gary, NIST, Boulder, CO; Y. Huang, Inst. of Refrig. and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai, China

335 Effect of Pressure on Hydrodynamic Parameters of Several PTR Regenerator Fillers in Axial Steady Flow

E. Landrum, T. Conrad, S. Ghiaasiaan, Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA; C. Kirkconnell, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

343 Anisotropic Hydrodynamic Parameters of Regenerator Materials Suitable for Miniature Cryocoolers

T. Conrad, E. Landrum, S. Ghiaasiaan, Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA; C.S. Kirkconnell, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA; T. Crittenden, S. Yorish, Virtual AeroSurface Tech., Atlanta, GA

353 A Model for Exergy Efficiency and Analysis of Regenerators

C. Dodson, A. Razani, T. Roberts, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

Recuperator Modeling and Performance Investigations

363 Miniature PCHE-Type Recuperator with Transverse Bypass

J. Jung, S. Jeong, G. Hwang, Korea Adv. Inst. of Science and Tech., Daejeon, Korea

373 Performance Results of Microplate Heat Exchangers

E. Marquardt, Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO

379 A Numerical Study of the Performance of a Heat Exchanger for a Miniature Joule-Thomson Refrigerator

Y. Hong, S. Park, Korea Inst. of Machinery & Materials, Daejeon, Korea; Y. Choi, Korea Univ., Seoul, Korea

387 Performance of a MEMS Heat Exchanger for a Cryosurgical Probe

M. White, G. Nellis, S. Klein, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; W. Zhu, Y. Gianchandani, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

397 Micro Channel Recuperator for a Reverse Brayton Cycle Cryocooler

C. Becnel, J. Lagrone, K. Kelly, Mezzo Tech., Baton Rouge, LA

J-T and Throttle-Cycle Cryocooler Developments

405 On-Chip Detector Cooling for Space Applications

J. Derking, H. ter Brake, H. Rogalla, Univ. of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; A. Sirbi, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

415 Modeling and Optimization of a Two-Stage Mixed-Gas Joule-Thomson Cryoprobe System.

H. Skye, S. Klein, G. Nellis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

425 Development of a Mixed-Refrigerant Joule-Thomson Microcryocooler

P. Bradley, R. Radebaugh, M. Huber, NIST, Boulder, CO; M. Lin, Y. Lee, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO

433 Vibration-Free Joule-Thomson Cryocoolers for Distributed Microcooling

W. Chen, M. Zagarola, Creare, Hanover, NH

441 Development of a Piezoelectric Microcompressor for a Joule-Thomson Microcryocooler

M. Simon, C. Deluca, V. Bright, Y. Lee, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO; P. Bradley, R. Radebaugh, NIST, Boulder, CO

451 Cooling Performance of Miniaturized Thermoacoustic Expanders Operated at 133 K

Z. Hu, CryoWave Advanced Tech., Inc., Pawtucket, RI

Brayton Cryocooler Developments

461 Demonstration of a Two-Stage Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Space Applications

M. Zagarola, J. Breedlove, Creare, Hanover, NH; C. Kirkconnell, J. Russo, T. Chiang, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

471 Control and Power Electronics for a Two-Stage Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Space Applications

J. McCormick, Creare Inc., Hanover, NH; B. Dull, J. Becker, R. Van Shoubrouek, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA; E. Cheung, W. Clement, Jackson & Tull, Greenbelt, MD; J. Murphy, J B Murphy Consulting, Culver City, CA

479 Second-Law Analysis of a Hybrid Reverse Brayton Stirling Cryocooler

A. Nieuwkoop, T. Roberts, A. Razani, C. Dodson, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM; R. Hon, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

Sub-Kelvin, Magnetic, and Novel Refrigerators

491 Dilution Refrigerator with Direct Pulse Tube Precooling

K. Uhlig, Walther Meissner Institute, Garching, Germany

497 Pocket Dilution Cooler

T. Prouve, N. Luchier, L. Duband, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France

505 50 mK Continuous Cooling with ADRs Coupled to ³Helium Sorption Cooler

J. Duval, N. Luchier, L. Duband, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France; A. Sirbi, ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

513 Development of Low Magnetic Field ADR for Transition Edge Sensors

T. Nast, D. Martinez-Galarce, S. Deiker, J. Olson, E. Roth, J. Mix, Lockheed Martin, Palo Alto, CA

519 A Superfluid Pulse Tube Driven by a Thermodynamically Reversible Magnetic Pump

F. Miller, NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD; J. Brisson, MIT, Cambridge, MA

Cryocooler Integration Technologies

525 Nitrogen Cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe: Results of a First Prototype

P. Gully, P. Seyfert, P. Thibault, L. Guillemet, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France; M. Qing, CAS/TIPC, Beijing, China

533 A Cryogenic Heat Transport System for Space-Borne Gimbaled Instruments

M. Zagarola, J. Sanders, Creare, Hanover, NH; C. Kirkconnell, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

541 Remote Cooling with the HEC Cooler

M. Michaelian, T. Nguyen, M. Petach, J. Raab, NGST, Redondo Beach, CA

545 Initial Test Results for a 35K Variable Load Cryocooler

W. Gully, P. Hendershott, D. Glaister, E. Marquardt, Ball Aerospace, Boulder, CO; J. Lester, R. Levenduski, Redstone Aerospace, Longmont, CO

553 Hydrogen and Neon Gas-Gap Heat Switch

I. Catarino, G. Bonfait, CEFITEC, Caparica, Portugal; L. Duband, CEA/INAC, Grenoble, France

561 A Thermo-Mechanical Heat Switch

L. Duband, CEA/SBT, Grenoble, France

569 Vibration Free Stirling Cryogenic Cooler for High Definition Microscopy

S. Riabzev, A. Veprik, H. Vilenchik, N. Pundak, Ricor, En Harod Ihud, Israel; E. Castiel, Nat’l Instruments, Tel Aviv, Israel

581 Low Vibration, Low Thermal Fluctuation System for Pulse Tube and Gifford-McMahon Cryocoolers

L. Mauritsen, D. Snow, A. Woidtke, M. Chase, I. Henslee, S2 Corp., Bozeman, MT

587 Design of Aural Undetectable Cryogenically Cooled Infrared Imagers

A. Veprik, H. Vilenchik, R. Broyde, N. Pundak, Ricor, En Harod Ihud, Israel

Cryocooler Drive Electronics

597 Universal Drive for Tactical Cryocoolers

B. Pilvelait, R. Kline-Schoder, Creare, Hanover, NH

607 21st Century Cryocooler Electronics

M. Jackson, M. Kieffer, J. Ortiz, J. Hylander, F. Wang, J. Miyamoto, R. Hon, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

Space Cryocooler Applications

613 AIRS Pulse Tube Coolers Performance Update – Six Years in Space

R. Ross, Jr., D. Johnson, D. Elliott, S. Licata, JPL, Pasadena, CA; K. Overoye, BAE Systems, Nashua, NH

621 MSL/CheMin Cryocooler System Requirements and Characterization Tests

D. Johnson, B. Carroll, R. Leland, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

631 Distributed Cooling Techniques for Cryogenic Boil-Off Reduction Systems

J. Feller, L. Salerno, NASA-ARC, Moffett Field, CA; A. Kashani, J. Maddocks, B. Helvensteijn, Atlas Scientific, San Jose, CA; G. Nellis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI; Y. Gianchandani, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

637 Prognostic Health Management System for Cryocooling Systems

B. Penswick, A. Shah, E. Sandt, Sest, Inc., Middleburg Heights, OH; C. Dodson, T. Roberts, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

647 USAF Thermal Management System Needs

T. Roberts, F. Roush, AFRL, Kirtland AFB, NM

Commercial Cryocooler Applications

657 Evaluation of a 4 K 4-Stage Pulse Tube Cryocooler for Superconducting Electronics

R. Webber, V. Dotsenko, J. Delmas, A. Kadin, E. Track, Hypres, Inc., Elmsford, NY

665 Cryocooled Cooling System for Superconducting Magnet

Y. Choi, D. Kim, H. Yang, B. Lee, W. Jung, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon, Korea

671 Model of a Twin-Screw Extruder Operating with a Cryocooler for Solidification of Deuterium

J. Leachman, J. Pfotenhauer, G. Nellis, Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI

681 Acoustic-Stirling 55 Gal/Day Oxygen Liquefier for Use on Aircraft Carriers

P. Spoor, CFIC-Qdrive, Troy, NY

687 Cold-Head Vibrations of a Coaxial Pulse Tube Refrigerator

T. Koettig, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland; F. Richter, C. Schwarz, R. Nawrodt, M. Thürk, P. Seidel, Friedrich-Schiller-Univ., Jena, Germany

695 Design and Implementation of a Ground Test Configuration for a Space Infrared Sensor

C. Kesler, T. Matsuoka, J. Zimmerman, C. Kirkconnell, D. La Komski, Raytheon SAS, El Segundo, CA

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